a he/ /9/b/t>/&cf Cne mis fry t f TRANSACTIONS AND ORGANIZATION

EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL

CONGRESS OF APPLIED CHEMISTRY

Washington and New York September 4 to 13, 1912

vol. xxvm

The matter contained in this volume is printed in exact occordance with the manuscript submitted, as provided for in the rules governing papers and publications.

La maitiere de ce volume a 6te imprimee strictment d'accord avec le manuscrit fourni et les regies gouvernant tous les documents et publications.

Die in diesem Heft enthaltenen Beitrage sind genau in Ubereinstimmung mit den uns , unterbreiteten Manuskripten gedruckt, in Gemassheit der fur Beitrage und Verlagsartikel geltenden Bestimmungen.

La materia di quest o volumePe stampata in accordo al manoscritto presentato ed in base alle regole que governano i documenti e le publicazioni.

THE RUMFORD PRESS CONCORD N H U S A

VOLUME XXVIII

CONTENTS

Page

Introduction vii

Constitution and By-Laws 1

Rules on Papers, Their Presentation, Discussion and Publication 5 The Inaugural Meeting at Washington:

Address of Welcome by the President of the United States 9

Inaugural Address of President Nichols 11

Address by Honorary President Morley 15

Election of Honorary Vice-Presidents 16

Responses:

Professor Wegscheider for Austria 17

Professor Lindet for France ; 18

Professor von Buchka for Germany 20

Sir William Ramsay for the British Empire 22

Dr. Jokichiro Yemori for Japan 22

Commanditore Giacomo Ciamician for Italy 23

Professor Paul I. Walden for Russia 24

Professor F. P. Treadwell for Switzerland 26

Interchange of Telegrams 27

Presentation of Special Badge to President Nichols 27

Vote of Thanks , 27

Social Features 28

Visits to Laboratories and Other Institutions 28

Attendance at Washington 29

The General Lectures:

Gabriel Bertrand: Sur le Role des Infiniment Petits en Agriculture . . 30 Carl Duisberg : Fortschritte und Probleme der Chemischen Industrie . . 50 Carl Duisberg: The Latest Achievements and Problems of the Chemi- cal Industry 86

William Henry Perkin: The Permanent Fireproofing of Cotton Goods 119

Giacomo Ciamician: Le Photochimica Dell'Avenire 135

Giacomo Ciamician: The Photochemistry of the Future 151

The Joint Sessional Addresses:

Samuel Eyde: Oxidation of Atmospheric Nitrogen and Development

of Resulting Industries in Norway 169

H. A. Bernthsen: Synthetic Ammonia 182

The Grand Banquet 203

The Final General Meeting 204

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iv Contents [vol.

Place of the Next Meeting 205

Officers of the IX Congress 207

Resolution 1 209

Resolution II 212

Resolution III 217

Resolution IV 219

Resolution V 221

Resolution VI 223

Resolution VII 225

Resolution VIII 226

Resolution IX 230

Resolution X 235

International Constants 240

Election of M. Sachs to the International Commission 241

Resolution of Thanks : 241

Address of M. Aulard 245

Address of M. F. de Silva 247

Address of Dr. Nishikawa 248

ORGANIZATION OF THE VIII CONGRESS

General Officers 249

Government Delegates:

Argentina, Australia, Austria : 250

Hungary, Belgium, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia 251

Denmark, Ecuador, France 252

Germany 253

Great Britain and Ireland, Greece, India, Italy 254

Japan, Mexico, Norway, Persia 255

Portugal, Russia, Siam, Sweden, Switzerland, Union of South Africa,

Venezuela, United States 256

Delegates from Societies and Institutions:

Africa, Australia, Austria 260

Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada 261

Chile, China, Denmark, England 262

France 265

Germany \ . . 267

India, Ireland 268

Italy, Japan, Netherlands 269

Norway, Peru, Portugal 270

Russia, Scotland 271

Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Union of South Africa 272

United States 273

Delegates from International Societies 279

xxviii] Contents v

Organizing Committee 280

International Commission 289

Executive Officers 289

Executive Committee 289

Ladies' Committee 290

Special Ladies' Committees 291

Marshals' Committee 295

Special Executive Committees 298

Sectional Committees 301

Foreign and Colonial Committees and Organizers:

Argentina, Austria 313

Hungary 317

Belgium 318

Chile, Denmark 319

France 320

Germany 324

Great Britain 331

Greece, Italy, Japan, Netherlands 334

Netherland East-Indies 337

Norway, Portugal, Russia 338

Sweden 341

Donors to General Fund 342

Work of the Congress 345

Factory Inspection in and about New York City 345

Social Functions in New York City 345

Excursions and Trips 346

Plants, Institutions and Places Visited:

Philadelphia, Pittsburgh 346

Niagara Falls, Buffalo, Detroit 347

Chicago 348

La Salle, Peru, Milwaukee, Cleveland, Schenectady, Albany, Boston,

Denver 349

Salt Lake City, Bakersfield, Fellows, Taft, San Francisco and Envi- rons, Fort Worth, Shreveport 350

New Orleans, Atlanta, Ducktown, Charlotte, Great Falls. 351

Washington, D. C 28

Local Committees 351

Washington 351

Philadelphia 352

Pittsburgh 353

Detroit, Chicago, 354

Boston, Denver 355

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Contents

[vol.

Local Committees (Continued): Colorado Springs, Cripple Creek, Salt Lake City, Bakersfield, San

Francisco, Los Angeles, Fort Worth 356

Shreveport, New Orleans, Birmingham, Atlanta, Ducktown, Canton,

Waynesville, Asheville 357

Charlotte, Great Falls : 358

Donors to Local Committees 358

Washington, Philadelphia 358

Pittsburgh, Chicago 360

Boston, Denver, Salt Lake City, Bakersfield 363

San Francisco, Oakland, Richmond, Los Angeles, Fort Worth, Shreve- port, New Orleans, Atlanta, Charlotte 364

Membership List:

Africa, Argentina 365

Australia, Austria .*« 367

Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada 370

Chile 372

China, Cuba, Denmark, Dutch East Indies, France 373

Germany 377

Great Britain and Ireland 382

Greece, Hungary 385

India, Italy 386

Japan, Federated Malay States, Mexico . . * 387

New Zealand, Netherlands, Norway . , 388

Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Russia 389

Spain 390

Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, West Indies 391

United States 392

Attending Ladies 464

Report op the Secretary 471

General Review 471

Summary .' 472

Attendances 473

Meeting Periods 474

Summary of Meeting Periods 474

Summary of Sectional Meetings 474

Summary of Joint Meetings 474

The Papers ' 475

The Discussions , 479

Participation in the Sections 480

Reports to the Congress 480

Membership and Registration 480

Factory Inspection and Works Inspection 482

INTRODUCTION.

At the instance of the representatives of the chemists of the United States, the Congress of the United States by Joint Reso- lution on March 4, 1909 authorized the President of the United States to invite the Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry to meet in the United States. This invitation was extended to the Seventh International Congress of Applied Chemistry in London June second, 1909, by the official delegates to that Congress under instructions from the Secretary of State and the presentation address was made by the Honorable White- law Reid at the request of those delegates; the invitation was enthusiastically and unanimously accepted.

The twelve delegates sent by the Government of the United States to the Seventh Congress of Applied Chemistry were ap- pointed by that Congress as the members of the organizing committee for the Eighth Congress, with power to add to their number.

The President of the United States showed his deep interest in the object and purposes of the Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry by consenting not only to act as its Patron but also to preside at the Inaugural Meeting of the Congress.

The time and places of meeting were determined upon after having obtained the views thereon from 44 societies residing outside the United States; the substantially unanimous choice of these societies was early September as to time and Washington and New York as the places of meeting. Washington and New York were accordingly selected and the time from September 4 to September 13 was also selected in accordance with the wishes of these 44 societies.

The following pages contain the record of the work of the Eighth Congress in its various formal gatherings and sessions, the ex- cursions and their itineraries together with a complete list of all the members of the various committees, the Donors to the General Fund and the membership of this Congress.

CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS

OF THE

Eighth International Congress op Applied Chemistry

1. The object of the Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry is the advancement of all applications of chemical science to practical life.

2. Any person having an interest in the object of this Congress is eligible to membership.

3. Applications for membership shall contain the applicant's declaration of desire to become a member; the applicant's name, title, post-office address and business or occupation shall be accurately set forth, and each application shall be accompanied by the membership fee, which is $5.00.

Application for and acceptance of membership in the Congress is an agreement to accept, observe and abide by the By-Laws of this Congress. The membership ticket will entitle each mem- ber to the Congress badge and to participation in all the sessions and other functions of the Congress proper, to one copy of the daily journal of the Congress and to one copy of all the printed matter of the Congress, inclusive of the final Report of the Con- gress.

A membership card shall be accepted as sufficient identifica- tion during the Congress.

4. Tickets for ladies accompanying members can be obtained for $3.00 each, and will entitle them to all the privileges of mem- bership except active participation in the scientific and business sessions and receipt of the Proceedings of the Congress. Bearers of these tickets will be welcome at all social functions.

5. Members attending the Congress should register at the Central Registration Bureau as soon as possible after arrival in New York, and should indicate the Sections or Subsections in whose deliberations they propose to take part.

Each member has the right to vote upon all nominations and 2 1

2 Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry [vol.

resolutions at the general sessions of the Congress, but he is entitled to participation in the debates and conferences of only those Sections or Subsections for which he has registered as above provided.

6. The number of the general sessions of the Congress, as well as the time and place of holding them and the order of business for each, shall be determined by the Executive Committee of the Congress and be announced by them in the daily journal not less than twenty-four hours preceding such general session.

The official languages of the Congress are English, German, French, and Italian.

7. There shall be the following committees:

1. Executive Committee,

2. Finance Committee,

3. Committee on Sectional Procedure,

4. Sectional Committees,

5. Committee on Papers and Publications,

and the Executive Committee shall have the power to appoint such additional committees as may be necessary for the orderly, proper and expeditious conduct of the business of the Congress.

(a) The Executive Committee shall have immediate control of, and responsibility for, the carrying out of all business of the Congress. The President of the Congress shall be Chairman of the Executive Committee and with the Honorary President, shall decide and determine its size and personnel.

(b) The Finance Committee shall have charge of the collec- tion and disbursement of all funds, and no bills shall be paid without the approval of the President of the Congress and the Chairman of the Committee incurring the outlay, or their duly appointed representatives. No indebtedness shall be incurred without the approval of the Executive Committee having first been obtained.

The Treasurer shall be Chairman of the Finance Committee, and with the Honorary President and the President shall de- termine the size and personnel of the Finance Committee.

(c) The Committee on Sectional Procedure shall decide the order of business and mode of procedure at all meetings of the

XXVIIl]

Constitution and By-Laws

3

Sections and Subsections of the Congress. Its decisions shall be final. This Committee shall consist of all the Presidents of Sections and Subsections, who shall elect their Chairman, and any other necessary officer or officers from among their number.

(d) Each Sectional Committee shall have charge of all matters pertaining to the business of its Section or Subsection, and shall provide or procure all the papers for all the meetings of that Section or Subsection. The Sectional Executive Committee shall pass upon the fitness for presentation of all papers offered and also upon the order of business at each session; its decisions shall be final within the Committee.

The Sectional Committee shall consist of a President and a Vice-President, who shall be elected by the Organizing Committee ; they shall select a Secretary and other members of their Commit- tee, subject to the approval of the Executive Committee.

The President and Vice-President of every Sectional Com- mittee shall each select one member, who, with themselves and the Secretary of the Section, shall constitute the Sectional Execu- tive Committee.

The President and Vice-President of each Section or Sub- section shall be responsible for the conduct of each stated meet- ing of their Section or Subsection.

The President of a Section or Subsection, or, in his absence, the Vice-President, shall have power to designate Presidents of Honor for each session.

The Secretary of each Section or Subsection shall be respon- sible for the correct reporting of the transactions of each session of his Section or Subsection.

(e) The Committee on Papers and Publications shall receive from the Sectional Committees such papers as they recommend for publication and shall decide whether the same shall appear in extenso or in abbreviated form in the printed Report of the Congress. It shall also decide any appeal by the author from the decision of the Sectional Committee on the question of pub- lication, and its action shall be final. This Committee shall be appointed by the Executive Committee, but, as far as practi- cable, no member of the Executive Committee of a Section or Subsection shall be appointed thereon.

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Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry [vol.

8. The minutes of each meeting, general or sectional, shall contain :

(a) The number of the session, the date, time and place thereof, the name of the presiding officer and of the President or Presi- dents of Honor; also the number of persons in attendance.

(6) A list of all papers read and all reports given at the session in the order in which they were actually read, the name and address of those reading the papers, and also the names of all members participating in the discussion, together with their remarks or the substance of their remarks.

(c) Resolutions and conclusions when adopted.

9. Resolutions and conclusions of Sections or Subsections shall be adopted by a majority vote of those attending the last stated meeting of that Section or Subsection and at no other meeting. A proposed resolution or conclusion must be presented in writing to the Secretary of the Congress at least forty-eight hours prior to such last stated meeting, and it shall be his duty to print the same in the daily bulletins, provided, however, that pertinent written amendments to the printed form which do not affect the substance of the proposed resolution may be adopted at such last meeting.

No resolution in which legislation is recommended to any particular Government shall be passed by the Congress or by any Section or Subsection thereof.

10. (a) The Executive Committee of the Congress is to decide and determine upon what addresses shall be given at the general sessions of the Congress, what motions and questions shall be put to the Congress in general meeting assembled, except as hereinafter provided; its decisions shall be final.

(6) Special addresses before sections or joint meetings of two or more sections, and the motions to be put before such joint meetings, shall be submitted to the Executive Committees of the Sections holding such joint meeting, and their decisions shall be final.

11. The Executive Committee shall have power to decide all matters not touched upon in these provisions, and shall continue in existence until the work of the Eighth Congress is finished,

xxviii] Rules on Papers and Publications 5

and shall, prior to its disbandment, transmit all current business to the Organizing Committee of the Ninth Congress.

The time and place of the holding of the Ninth Congress and its Organizing Committee, which shall have power to add to its number, shall be determined at the last general session of the Congress.

12. A quorum in all sessions of the Congress or its Commit- tees of any kind shall be constituted by those who attend a stated meeting, and the majority vote of such quorum is con- clusive, final and binding.

The Honorary President and the Presideux of the Ninth Con- gress shall be nominated by the International Commission of the Congresses of Applied Chemistry to the Eighth Congress at its last general meeting, for election. The President of the Ninth Congress is to be Chairman of the Organizing Committee of that Congress.

RULES ON PAPERS, THEIR PRESENTATION, DIS- CUSSION AND PUBLICATION

1. Papers or other like contributions should be original and not elsewhere read or published; however, prior publication of Governmental researches, which publication is made in accord- ance with the law of such country, shall be exempt from the above restriction as to publication.

2. All papers or like contributions should be as concise as pos- sible and must contain the name and post-office address of the respective authors; further, what number, if any, of reprints is desired. (See Rules 8 and 10.)

3. All papers should be in duplicate and legibly written, preferably typewritten; formulae should be carefully inserted by hand as simply as possible.

4. Each sheet should be as nearly 8 x 12 inches as convenient and should be written on one side only, and not on both sides.

5. Each paper should be accompanied by an abstract thereof in duplicate; formulae should be carefully inserted by hand, as simply as possible.

6 Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry [vol.

6. All references to other work should state carefully the sources of the citation, giving the exact reference to the original publi- cation.

7. Illustrations, curves and the like should be on separate smooth white sheets and drawn and lettered with Indian ink clearly enough to bear a linear reduction to one-half or two- thirds and when so reduced should not exceed the page size of the " Report," which will be about 4J by 7 inches.

8. Authors of papers which are to be illustrated by lantern slides are urgently requested to state on their paper the size of slide used so that suitable arrangements may be made. Failure to observe this may result in disappointment and delay. (See Rule 2.)

9. The Congress obligates itself to have its final Report and Proceedings, including subject and authors' index, completed and ready for distribution on or before December 31, 1912; in case those Reports and Proceedings be not ready for distribu- tion by that date, authors of all papers received and accepted after June 30, 1912, may then publish in any journal or publica- tion that they may elect. (Note: This refers only to the Report and Proceedings bound in paper; members desiring cloth bound sets can obtain them at an advanced charge over the $5.00 mem- bership fee; such advanced charge will be announced later, but will probably be $2.50; delivery of these cloth bound sets will be about 90 days later than of the paper bound sets.)

Authors of papers received before the close of June 30, 1912, may publish those papers in any publication they may elect after the paper is read or after the Congress has adjourned. (See Rule 12.)

10. Authors of papers accepted and printed in full or in abstract will receive free of cost and all delivery charges, not to exceed fifty (50) reprints of each paper or abstract; additional copies of reprints can be had upon payment of the prices for such copies, which prices will be announced later. The Congress cannot undertake to furnish reprints of papers if the order for such re- prints is not attached to the paper or abstract when received by the American Committee. (See Rule 2.)

11. Papers and their abstracts, both in duplicate, must be in

XXVIIl]

Rules on Papers and Publications

7

the hands of the American Committee not later than June 30, 1912. All papers received prior to that time and accepted will be printed in their respective Sectional Volumes and distributed to such of the attending members of the Congress as may desire them, at or before the opening of the Congress. Papers received after that time, if accepted, will be printed, but may appear in an appendix which may or may not be ready by the opening of the Congress; the Congress cannot then undertake to print them along with the papers of those sections to which they may be assigned and which were received prior to June 30, 1912.

12. No paper offered to and accepted by this Congress can be at any time published elsewhere without giving credit to this Congress for such article or publication. However, Govern- mental publication of papers contributed to the Congress is exempt from the above requirement as to giving credit to this Congress.

13. All authors, as a matter of course, agree not to publish their accepted papers in any other publication except as herein pro- vided, and, further, they agree to abide by any final decision of the Congress with respect to such paper or papers, their presen- tation, discussion or printing.

14. Rejections by Sectional Committees will not be final; their decisions will be reviewed by the Committee on Papers and Publications, but rejection by that Committee will be final.

15. Authors of finally rejected contributions will be notified in writing of such rejection immediately after it has been made, and, as far as the Congress is concerned, such final rejection is strictly secret and confidential. Rejected manuscripts are to be returned to their authors. (See Rule 16.)

16. The Congress will not publish a list of rejected papers nor state what papers have been rejected; directly after the closing of the Congress all records relating to rejected papers and like contributions will be destroyed; any and all proceedings as to rejected papers or like contributions, so far as the Congress is concerned, will be strictly secret and confidential.

17. Any paper which is of a pronounced polemical, advertising or personal character may be thereby disqualified and for that

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Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry [vol.

reason alone rejected, regardless of whatever merit the paper may otherwise possess.

18. The Congress reserves the right to reject any paper or other contribution that may be offered to it.

19. The Congress reserves the right to print the full paper only, or the abstract only, or the title only, in each case with the author's name and post-office address.

20. Authors are requested to state on the papers themselves their preferences for the sections in which they wish them to be read; the Congress will respect that request wherever practicable, but reserves the right to assign the paper to any other section that may be deemed more appropriate, and such disposition is final.

21. Authors will not receive printer's proofs of their papers or abstracts; nor will their papers or abstracts be revised after receipt by the American Committees; printing will be accurate to copy.

22. The time consumed in reading or presenting the substance of any paper by an author or his representative at a meeting of a Section must not exceed ten (10) minutes, except by special per- mission of the Sectional Executive Committee.

23. In the absence of an author or his representative the paper will be read by title only, and if there be any discussion it must be based upon the paper as printed because neither the paper itself nor its abstract will be read; exceptions to this rule can be made only under regulations that may be adopted by each Sectional Executive Committee.

24. Discussions of a pronounced polemical, advertising or personal character may be ruled out by the Chair on that ground alone and not permitted to appear in the printed record; the ruling of the Chair in such matters is final and is not subject to revision or appeal.

25. Participants in discussions will be given an opportunity of editing the manuscript reports of their remarks, but printer's proofs will not necessarily be submitted to them, although where- ever practicable they will be so supplied.

26. Participants in discussions must speak from the rostrum and not from the floor.

THE INAUGURAL MEETING

at Washington.

The Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry held its Inaugural Meeting in Continental Memorial Hall, Washington, D. C, on September 4, at eleven o'clock, under the Presidency of Dr. William H. Nichols.

The stage was occupied by President Nichols with Dr. E. W. Morley, Honorary President, on his right, and Prof. L. Lindet on his left, and on either side of these the Delegates designated to respond to the addresses of welcome. There were also present on the stage the Delegates representing Foreign Governments, the members present on the Executive Committee and the Presi- dents of Sections of the Congress.

The Rev. Bernard G. Braskamp of the Church of the Cove- nant, Washington, delivered the Invocation.

Major Thomas L. Rhoads, U.S.A., A.D.C., the official repre- sentative of the United States, waited, in person, upon the Presi- dent of the Congress and announced that the President of the United States, in spite of a personal injury received at Beverly, Massachusetts, the day before, had come to Washington for the purpose of opening the Congress. He found himself, however, unable to stand and must defer his opening address until the Reception at the White House in the afternoon. This was announced to the Congress by President Nichols, and by his direction the text of the address of President Taft is inserted below as part of the proceedings of this Inaugural Meeting.

The President of the United States:

"Mr. Chairman, and Ladies and Gentlemen of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry.

"I have much pleasure in welcoming you, on behalf of the Government and people of the United States, to Washington.

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10 Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry [vol.

I sincerely hope that your stay in this Capital may be an agreeable one.

" Yours is one of those important International Congresses that mark the great progress which has been made in research and application of newly-discovered principles in a most impor- tant science and art. If there be any science that goes to the heart of the matter, it is chemistry. Dealing with atoms and molecules and their association, and the manifestations of their action upon each other, chemistry seems at one time the most abstruse of sciences, and then when we see it applied in the great modern factories in the manufacture of those elements which are essential to the success of the industrial arts, we are made to know that the extent of the "science from the theoretical to the practical is wider than that of any other.

"I observe that in your various divisions you discuss many different questions not peculiarly chemical. I note a consider- ation of the question of patents, what patents ought to in- clude, and what kind of a patent system ought to be adopted by each Government. Patents have played a very great part in the development of the United States, and we have given to patentees a very valuable monopoly for the purpose of dis- covering by their industries, new methods of accomplishing useful results. Whether we have made this monopoly too great or not is now the subject of consideration by a commission pro- vided for by Congress. There is certainly great room for im- provement in the machinery of our Patent Office, and it would be well if more value could inhere in the issuing of a patent as evidence of real property. Now, however, until a patent has been fought through the courts, people do not seem to regard it as of a great deal of monopoly value. -

"I may add that one of the great opportunities for reform, in my judgment, is in the shortening of patent litigation and the reducing of its expenditure. I know very little about chemistry, but I know a good deal about patent litigation. I know that the amount of money that has been unnecessarily wasted, and the inequality that has been produced between the rich litigant and the poor litigant, by reason of the unnecessary expense of that litigation, is one of the things that calls for remedy and immedi-

XXVIIl]

William H. Nichols Inaugural Address

11

ate remedy. It is not essential that we should make a record of 10,000 printed pages at $50 a day for experts and $100 a day for patent lawyers. I have no objection to experts. I have no objection to patent lawyers, but I think we can have too much of both of them. What ought to happen is that the expert should be called into open court, should there be examined on the prin- cipal points of the case, and then dismissed, and not have that interminable system of records, which every judge who has had any experience in respect to patent law must condemn, on the one hand, because of its uselessness, and on the other hand because of its expense. You observe that I am willing to make a diversion in the direction of which I know something. But it is not for me to discuss a subject that is only distantly related to the main pur- pose of your coming.

" I regret exceedingly that the weather is such as not to permit you to enjoy the beautiful grounds of the White House as fully as you could on a sunny day. I have come a long distance to meet you, in order to emphasize as much as I can the importance which the American Government and the American people attach to your deliberations and the subject-matter of your considera- tion, and the anxiety and concern they have in promoting every International Congress which makes, as this does, for 'Team- work' in the world's progress."

President Nichols then opened the Congress with the following Inaugural Address :

"On behalf of the great army of American chemists, more than six thousand in number, and representing all branches of the profession, and in the name of the great industrial organ- izations depending on their services, and also of the Universities, Colleges and Technical Schools, where many are devoting their lives to instruction, it is my privilege also to extend a hearty wel- come to our guests from all the corners of the earth.

"We are gathered together to compare notes and to add to what has been done before, thus contributing to the great struc- ture of the future something of perhaps vital importance to its growth and symmetry. We realize that this is an age of coopera- tion rather than of destructive competition, and we therefore

12 Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry [vol.

unite our efforts that the resultant may be worthy of us. We are here to give, that we may receive, and thus pass on to the world something more than our isolated efforts could make possible. The alchemist of the Middle Ages worked alone, seeking the philosopher's stone, or perhaps the elixir of life, vainly hoping to transmute baser things into gold, or indefinitely prolong the joys of youth. We work together, and much has come to pass in the transmutation not of the elements, it is true, but of useless into useful things, and much has been accomplished in the betterment of the whole span of life. It is true we cannot see the goal and cannot even imagine what it will be when discovered in the dis- tant future, but we are trying to do our share of the onward work so that those who succeed us will be better prepared to take their part because of what we have done.

"Cooperation such as ours becomes not only a delight, but a moral quality. To this symposium we of the new world cordially welcome those who from other lands and other experiences come to add their assistance and sympathy.

"To this word of welcome to ouf guests I am sure you would have me add one of appreciation of our Chairman, President Taft, who has torn himself away from a well earned and needed rest to come here to preside at this opening meeting of our Con- gress— a worthy successor of the kings and princes who have similarly, honored those which preceded it. While his genial na- ture leads him to do this freely, we none the less appreciate that the chemists of the world, whether present with us or not, are un- der obligations to him which they can never repay. I am sure that I speak for you all when I tender to him our united thanks for the honor he has conferred upon us and on the science which we love.

"Since our last Congress, held in London in 1909, no past officials of the congress have died. Sir Henry Roscoe, Honorable President of the Seventh Congress, has met with great affliction in the loss of his dear wife, but with that exception death has not entered into the homes of those who have presided over former congresses. We extend to him today our heartfelt sympathy, added to our regret that advancing age has prevented him from being present with us today. I am sure he is with us in the spirit.

XXVIIl]

William H. Nichols Inaugural Address

13

"The President of the Fifth or Berlin Congress, Prof. Otto N. Witt, of Charlottenburg, has also been prevented from attend- ing. I am sure that anyone who has met him, or who has known of his great works, will join me in the expression of deepest regret that one of the most brilliant lights of the chemical world cannot be with us. Those of you who had the good fortune to hear his scholarly address at the Seventh Congress will, to some extent, appreciate what he could have added to this Congress had he been present.

"Prof. Emanuele Paterno, President of the Sixth or Roman Congress, finds himself at the last moment unable to attend. Up to a few days ago I felt sure of his presence, and was therefore all the more disappointed at his change of plans. We shall miss him greatly, although there are worthy representatives of his country here.

"We are very fortunate in having with us Professor Lindet, President of the Second Congress; Sir William Ramsay, President of the Seventh Congress, and Dr. Friedrich Strohmer, of the Vienna Congress. These, with those I have named, are the only living members of the International Commission of Congresses of Applied Chemistry, and we are happy to welcome them and to know that we are to have the benefit of their great wisdom and experience during the conduct of the affairs of this Congress.

"I am pleased to report that a very large proportion of the Original Communications to this Congress has already been printed and bound, twenty-four volumes in all, and will be distributed to members on registration at Columbia University on their return to New York. I think this is worthy of mention, as I believe it is a result which has never been accomplished before, and which could not have been accomplished now but for the magnificent and untiring work of our Secretary, and the cooperation with him of the officers and members of the Sectional Committees and the Committee on Papers and Publications. It is hoped that with these transactions in hand the discussions of the papers will be of great value. Thanks to the effective assistance of Mr. Edison and his staff, arrangements have been made to record these discussions on the phonograph in the official language employed, and this in itself will represent an

14 Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry [vol.

added novelty in our Congress, and, at the same time, insure an accurate report.

" We are also fortunate in having some of the foremost chemists of Europe as lecturers on subjects of great importance; and, anticipating the public interest which these lectures will arouse, arrangements have been perfected to make them available for large numbers.

"The past fifty years have seen marvelous improvements in all branches of science. This is not the time or place to discuss details, but I feel justified in saying that the science of chemistry during the great evolutionary period, has not been outstripped by any of the others. While its work has been more quiet, and has not been so obvious to the general public, it has been none the less of supreme importance. I believe it is gradually being realized that the world of the future will depend more upon the science of chemistry than upon any other, and may even have to look to it for its continued life. As its mines become more and more exhausted, and its lands more and more depleted of power to grow crops, it must turn to chemistry for instruction as to pre- vention of wastes, and uses of power and materials, which, without ministrations, would be useless.

"With this thought in our minds we welcome with more than ordinary cordiality our foreign guests some of them from the antipodes. We invite them to aid us in the solution of the great physical problems which confront us as a nation. We have had, and still possess, magnificent natural resources; we have perhaps done with them the best that we could, but we are becoming more and more alive to the fact that the problems are vast and com- plex. These natural resources must be exploited, but I con- ceive it to be of much more importance that they be intelligently conserved. The assistance of those who have of necessity had these problems in conservation always before them will be doubly welcomed by us who have been so prodigal in the expenditure of our great wealth.

" The development of our country has been extremely rapid, but the thoughtful ones among us realize that the time is at hand when lavish expenditure must be succeeded by prudent conserva- tion in order that we may not only pass down to posterity a record

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of wonderful evolution, but insure that we have not robbed our children's children of the materials necessary for their own progress.

" With these ideas we will proceed to our labors at New York with light hearts, believing that great good will come to our country and to the world as a result of those labors, not only in the immediate future, but more particularly in the more distant future which it is our bounden duty to carefully and religiously protect."

Dr. Nichols then introduced Professor Edward W. Morley, Honorary President of the Congress who spoke as follows:

"The Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry, assembled according to the invitation of the President of the United States of America, and by the authority of the Congress of the United States, desires to express its gratitude for this invitation, and further, its especial gratitude for, and high appreciation of, the honor done us, Mr. President, by your con- sent to open the deliberations of this Congress.

"It is my privilege, fellow members of the Congress, to express to you the cordial welcome with which the chemists of the United States receive you to their country. This cordial welcome we gladly offer to visiting chemists from every country of the whole world. Moreover, both the representatives in this country of applied chemistry, and also the lovers and followers of pure chemistry, take a special pleasure in welcoming chemists from the four nations whose languages are the official languages of this Congress. It was among these nations that, something like a century ago, chemistry as we now understand it had its origin. Lavoisier established an anti-phlogistic chemistry, Dalton founded the atomic theory, Liebig furnished organic chemistry with methods, and Avogadro helped us to an insight into molecu- lar weights. During the century since these magnificent begin- nings, the progress of chemistry in these four nations has been well worthy of the beginnings.

"At the time of these brilliant beginnings the United States of America were but just become an independent nation. The work of the hour on this continent was to organize the mechanism

16 Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry [vol.

of civilization in the wilderness which then covered much of our area. Pure chemistry had to wait while roads and bridges were built and the forest was cleared. Our studies and energies had to be expended upon the difficult problems of conducting a popu- lar government problems which we are optimistic enough to regard as not incapable of solution. The organization of univer- sities by private initiative and at private expense, and the organ- ization of elementary schools at public expense over almost half a continent, diverted able men from research in pure science. The necessities of mine and furnace and factory led men, who might have stood high as investigators, to use their energy and insight in applying chemistry to industry, and adding to the wealth of the country and the comforts of life.

" Accordingly, the chemists of this country are delighted to welcome chemists from the nations who have been our masters and teachers in pure chemistry. The debt which we owe to the chemists of these nations is incapable of repayment. But if any courtesies which we can show you, any provision for the pleasure of your visit which we can make, any solicitude for the success of your deliberations which we can feel, should suggest that such repayment would be to us a privilege and a pleasure, and a great delight, we should but feebly express the warmth of the welcome with which we receive you to the sessions of the Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry."

At the close of this address, Dr. Nichols said:

" There is a piece of business, ladies and gentlemen, that we have to perform before proceeding further. I wish to propose that the Vice-Presidents and Presidents of Committees, both Foreign and American, with the members of the joint organizing committees and secretaries, should be elected officers of the Congress, and that the Delegates of Foreign Governments and Universities be elected as Honorary Vice-Presidents.

"I will now put that to vote. Those in favor of this election will kindly signify the same by holding up their hands."

The resolution was adopted unanimously.

Responses to the addresses of welcome were delivered by foreign delegates in accordance with the following program, each

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address being followed by the appropriate national air rendered by the United States Marine Band.