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HARVARDAUNIVERSI FY.

31 BEAK ¥

OF THE

MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY.

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Suottish Hataralist

A QUARTERLY MAGAZINE OF

NATURAL SCIENGE.

EDITED BY

wer rh ATI AlM., M.D, ‘F:L.sS.,

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN.

VOLUME IV.—NEW SERIES. (VOLUME X. FROM THE BEGINNING).

Pee ria. COWAN & CO., LIMITED, PRINTERS anp PUBLISHERS.

1889-1890.

i i

INDEX OF “ARPICLES.

Sa

Page Aberdeen, Deiopeia pulchella taken in 1840 near x ari 262 Aberdeen (North) New Records of Flowering Plants _... wa 366 Aberdeen Working Men’s Nat, Hist. Society, Exhibition of A ary. Aberdeenshire, Reed Bunting in aes 98

Abnormalities of Structure and Double Pees: Artificial Bie: tion of e sae 114 Additional Records By Sepitish Baits for years 1888 nal 1889 somes 6-908 202 Additions to the List of Scotch Discomycetes ... Be 384 Address (Presidential) to E. S. U. N. S. at Montrose in eon ane 338 5s # Scottish Cry ptogamic Society in 1888... 16 Agaricus storea Fr. Sr va aia oe AE 300 Agropyrum Donianum, a Correction ... es 3 dies 232 Agrostis rubra L. ... a a sis ee 144 », canina L., var. Scotica Hackel a ae 239 Alford, Meeting ae East of Scotland Union of Nat. Shcietiess I oes 149 Alford District, Desmids of ... ioe its shee vs 199 + Ferns and Mosses of ... Ae aes Bae 193 Algze, Notice of Articles on ... St 328;.329; 331 Algze, Introduction to British Hrech water (Goakel, Review of... 383 Antiquities of Davan and Kinnord _... 157

Artificial Production of Double Flowers and of ater ‘Abnenmaniees of Structure ... des i aA Yad ae 114 Berkeley, Rev. Miles J., Obituary of .. & des sate 145 Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club, eroeee dings Bic, sai oes 328 Birds, Illustrated Manual of British (Howard Saunders), Review of 240 », Notice of Articles on bor .- 328, 329, 334, 330, 379, 380, 381 Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Transactions and Proceedings ... 329

British Association, Reports of Delegate from E. S. U. N.S. in 1888 and 1889 A she FAO}, Bat British Association, in relation to Boecal Nat. Fiat, Museunte ee 349

4 in relation to Work of Local Scientific Socie- ties, see 252 British Birds, Illustrated Maral of (Howard ee nda Reve of 240

Me Butterflies and Moths, Larve of alice Review of Vol. -LUL. ae 286

Pe Fresh- Water ee Pitteductions to (Cooker Revie

of

a Flora, A Nitella new to the a Le 192 nig Hieracia, Monograph of (Hanbury), Rotiea Osha wrt. 239

i Plants, London Catalogue, 8th ed. corrected, Review

of at ae sae ae ae 382

iV L[ndex.

Page British Birds, Uredineze and Ustilaginee, Monograph of (Plow- ; right), Review of ... 143 Brown and Buckley's Vertebrate Fauna of the ater eHatsridest

Review of ... oe 284 Buckler’s Larvze of Brien Buttersies saa" ‘Moths, WoL. 1G 8

Review of... Ae 286 Butterfly, its Life- History sid! Attribntes (Stuttard), iRewieta eae "240 Caithness, Contributions towards a Flora of .. wee “a 39, 77

3 Melampyrum sylvaticum in a of a2 113 Cardamine amara, Variety of as 299 Catalogue of British Plants (Hanbuet ‘Sth ed... ON otice of oe 382 Characez, Notices of ae ae oe ‘i: 39, 95, 192 Coleoptera of Scotland, Notices of ... os me 287, 333, 377 Clyde, New Records of Fungi for ‘a ut a ne 224 Collection and Study of Willows ie “i ae at 122 Conchology, Journal of, Notice of Articles in ... nA 379 Cooke’s Introduction to British Fresh-Water Alge, Rees of 333 Crustacea of Scotland, Articles on .... ¥ 332, 333,334; 335, 302 Cryptogamic Society of Scotland, Presidential Natiedes in 1888... 16

Ae Papers read: before 22, 30, 52, 57, ¥25, F712, 220, $02, 907 Davan and Kinnord, Antiquities of ... : ay me 157 Deiopeia pulchella taken near Aberdeen in en - . 262 Delegate from E. S. U. N. S. to B. A.; Meetings in 1888 atid 1889,

Reports from Bes a a at | ‘@oy24az Desmids of the Alford District hie as nde is 199 Diptera of Scotland, Notices of Articles on a ... 287, 377, 378, 379 Disappearance of Scotch Plants Bas sh A ae 233 Discomycetes, Descriptions of New Scotch re ae 222

en Revision of Scotch fee eee ives, Ke 220, 384 Don’s Plants at : et 144 Double Flowers and other lntmoribenden of Rican Artificial

Production of ; 114 Dumfriesshire and Gallen Nat. Fist and ta Soc. 5 Eine:

sions in 1890 ares bal uA oh eu 373

East of Scotland Union of Nat. Societies, Reports of Meetings 1, 149, 337 Excursions... 150, 345, 346 35 a Papers read at 3, 6, 49, 152, 157,

193, 198, 199, 210, 241, 275, 338, 347, 349, 359

9 be)

Kast of Scotland, Report on Fungi in 1889 ___... é me 275

Willows of er ae : ae 359 Kasterness, Pseudathyrium flexile Syme in ae aa 239 Kdinburgh Botanical Society, Trans. and Proc. of, Movscedd ce 329 Edzell, Geology of .. ( ae = 347

Edzell Castle, Beeteian of E, ‘Ss. U. N. Stone = ad 1345

L[ndex. Vv

Page Entomologist, Notice of Articlesin .. : ee 377 Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine, Notice of Articles in 2h: 287 Farquharson, R. F. O., Obituary of ... ane Sh arts 289 Ferns and Fern-Allies, Notices of _... 93, G9-II1, 193, 264-73, 331 Ferns and Mosses of Alford District ... ~ ie 193 Fife and Kinross, New Work on the Moss- Flora, by C. Hh owie ... 15 Fishes, Notices of Articles on é Aids 2025 232,924 334

Flora, Additions to Records of Seaich Cryptogams (see Alaa, Ferns, Fungi, Lichens, Mosses, Characec). 5, Additions to Records of Scotch Phanerogams 32, 39, 43, 77, 95, 99, TOI, 212, 2329239) .203,°290,'200," 300, 346, 359, ‘360

», Articles on Scotch Flora, Notices of ... hen 325, 329,330, 331, 3325 333) 334, 336 5, Nitella new to British dere oe ss cn 192 », of Caithness, Contributions towardsa_... te ie: 20,77, », of North-East of Ireland (Stewart and Corry), Review of ... 48 », Of River Shingles Bs se se sa Sep 290 i, OLonetiand . Bae iow | Gea oD »» Works on British, fener aa ae SO te 48, 143, 239, 383, 584 Fresh- Water Algz, Introduction to Barish (Cooke), Review of ... 383 Frogs at High Levels, Occurrence of ... sai nk 96 Fungi, Additions to Scotch Records ... 1S) #9; be POR o. Mini. 220" 222, 224, 275, 302, 307, 384 », Articles on, Notices of se B25 330. 88,334), 335 »» of Kast of Scotland, Report toe 1889 ie 275 ,, Of Inveraray and its Vicinity observed in Septeniber: 1888-- Hymenomycetes bis ma aise ip 52 Micromycetes ... She Dok ay ee 57 Galls, Scottish Sas r aa is oS b 226 », Notices of Articles on i. Baer 336 Gentiana Pneumonanthe in Scotland, Reported Oeeumance OLE 95 Geology of Ilighlands from Mount Battock, by Edzell, to St. Cyrus 347 a Montrose and its Vicinity ... 33 tee ix 338 * Scotland, Notices of Articles on ... -s 328, 335, 336 Glasgow Nat. Hist. Society, Proc. and Trans., Notice of es, 332 Growth of Phalaris arundinacea, On the ae te i. 210 Hematite Iron Ore found near Kirkcaldy Boe 6 Hanbury’s Illustrated Monograph of British Hieracia, ie olen aie 239 Harvey, Emeritus Professor Alexander, M.D., Obituary of ef 97 Hebrides (Outer) Vertebrate Fauna of (Broan and Buckley), Ae- view of $5 as “6 ay sds 3 284 Hieracia (see Hanbury). Highlands from Mount Battock, by Edzell, to St. Cyrus, Se of 347 High Levels, Occurrence of Frogs at . es ah 95

0

nal lnilex.

Page Huntly, Meeting of the Northern Institute at... ee ay 46 Hymenomycetes of Inveraray ae bit Pad 52 cs Roxburgh, Notice of Article! on ee ee 328 Hymenoptera of Scotland, Notices of Articles on .-« 333) 334s 335, 336 Insects of Scotland, Notices of Articles on 287, 288, 333, 334, 335, 336, 378 Institute (Northern), Meeting at Huntly Sz rep 40 Introduction to British Fresh-Water Algz (Cooke), Reset ere 383 Inveraray, Fungi (Hymenomycetes and Micromycetes) of e 52 - Lichens of ids * 22 Treland, Flora of North-East of (Stewart and Coane); Review Cats 48 Iron Ore (Hzematite) found near Kirkcaldy _... as ~ 6 Journal of Conchology, Notice of Articlesin ... 2 oa 379 Kinnord and Davan, Antiquities of ... : a5 157 Kinross, New Work on Moss Flora of Fife anil N otice of “. 15 Kirkcaldy, Hzematite Iron Ore found near oe £3: B38 6 Label Lists, Naturalis!s’ Gazette Series of, Notice of _.... ite 286 Largo, Meeting of E. S. U. N.S. at, in 1888 . ; saa I Larva Collecting and Breeding (St. John), Review as =o 382 Larvee of British Butterflies and Moths (Buckler), Vol. IIL., re view of £53 = ean We a a 284 Lepidoptera, Notices of Articles on .,. Be 287, 288, 377, 378: 379 Lichens of Inveraray ts " " 22 Lichia Vadigo, Risso, tal cad near sim ia ae ts 262 Local Nat. Hist. Museums, The British Association in relation to 349 »» Scientific Societies, The British Association in relation to the Work of of 252 London Catalogue of British’ Bante. Sth ed., No otice of s a 382 M‘Nab, Professor William R., M.D., Obituary of i 283 Mammals, Notices of ! Miia 334, 380, 381 Manual (Illustrated) of British Birds (Howard Saunders), 7e- view of ae Ae ie Uy 240 Marine Zoology, Notices of Atticles on .+ 332) 3335 3345 335, 3903302 Meetings of E. S, U. N.S. ... Se oe br I, 149. 337 Melampyrum sylvaticum in Caithness ... a sae al 113 Micromycetes of Inveraray ... = a: a, sh 57 Mollusca, Notices of Articles on ig MPR eee ics ee wee Monograph (Illustrated) of British Hieracia (Hanbury), Xeview of 239 oh of British Uredineze and Ustilagineze (Plowright), /e- view of ... wet * We 143 Montrose, Early History and Geclowy of axe a ee 338 Mosses (and Ferns) of the Alford District S on sae 193

», of the Genus Grimmia, On some Scotch ahs ss 217

Index.

Mosses, Notices of Articles on Mount Battock, Geology of . i | Museums, Relation of British i to el Nat. Hist.

Natural History Society of Glasgow, Proc. and Trans., Notice of...

»» science, Perthshire Society of Pi 4h Naturalists’ Club, Berwickshire 3 Bs Gazette Series of Label Lists, Wore of

Nature and Woodcraft (Watson), Review of

Neuroptera (in the widest sense), Notices of Articles on ... 287, 288, 333, 377

New Records (of Fungi) for Clyde », Scotch Discomycetes, Descriptions of

»» Species and Varieties described in this Volume (see ‘Special List).

Nitella new to British Flora . Northern Institute, Meeting at ¢ Himtly

Obituaries of Berkeley, Rev: Miles J., F.R.S. Farquharson, Robert F. O., of Haughton Harvey, Emeritus Professor Alexander, M.D. M‘Nab, Professor William Ramsay, M.D. Obituaries Noticed in Review of ‘‘ Proceedings” Ore (Hematite Iron Ore) found near Kirkcaldy Orkney, Peronosporee of

Outer Hebrides, Vertebrate Fauna of she (Bian and Bickley), Re-

view of

Peeblesshire, Plants of Peronosporez of Orkney Perthshire, Poa palustris in ... j . Society of Nat. Science, Peenisous and Baieaeone) Notice of

Plants, Don’s

», London Catalogue ig Britian Sth ed., Motice éf.

3, Of Peeblesshire

»» Records of Scottish, for 1888 an 1880 | Poa palustris in “eect ; Presidential Address to E. S. U.N. S. in Tea a

a es til Cryptogamic Society in 1888

Primula scotica, Erroneous Record of

Production (Artificial) of Double Flowers and other Moral.

ties A % Pseudathyrium exile Syme, in p Hatterness Public Schools, Teaching of Science in 2 Publications of Scottish Scientific Societies, Wariee: of— Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club Edinburgh Botanical Society...

vil

Page

SSIS SS)

347 349 332 335 328 2860

132,222

329; 330

Vill Index.

Page Publications of Glasgow Natural History Society * 2 332 Perthshire Society of Natural Science... <t “oy 335 Records (Additional) of Vascular Plants from Scotland for 1888 and 1889 : oe bit ae ~.., | QOy 2am Reed Bunting in Divciduentnire 263 98 Reports of Delegate from E. 8. U. N.S. to Brit. Lees in 1888 and 1889 __—séi... eh, oe w+ - AQ; 24% Report for 1889 on Fungi of East of Peotlana ig Lae Fi 275 Reviews— The Butterfly, Its Life-History and Attributes, (Stuttard) 240 Flora of the North-East of Ireland, (Stewart and Corry).. 48 Illustrated Manual of British Birds, (Howard Saunders) ... 240 5 Monograph of British Hieracia, (Hanbury) ... 237 Introduction to British Fresh-Water Algz, (Cooke) eo 383 Larva Collecting and Breeding, (St. John) Se i 382

Larvee of British Butterflies and Moths, (Buckler), Vol. III. 286 -London Catalogue of British Plants, (Hanbury), 8th edition 382 Monograph of British Uredinez and Ustilaginez, (Plowright) 143

Naturalists’ Gazette Series of Label Lists ie = 286

Nature and Woodcraft, (Watson) fe 383 Vertebrate Fauna of the Outer Hebrides, ‘Brown and Builen 284 Revision of the Scotch Discomycetes’.. Bs s<s 125, 171, Seen 5 Uredinez of Scotland ag oe ivy. ee ee

3 Ustilagineze of Scotland ... ie me Le: 367 River-shingles, Flora of « =; to ce 290 Rumex propinquus Aresch. in Britain, (Shetland) a om 300

St. Cyrus, Excursion of E. 8S. U. N.S, to, with Notes on the Geology and

Flora ve et am sae oe . 340

Sand re re cb: .. ae ee < 152 Schools (Public), On the teaching of Science in 2 ciadium Arbuscula Braun ... 198

Scientific Journals, Notices of Anticieees in, See Batonialoaee Baie logists Monthly Magazine, Journal of Concology, and Zoologist.

Scientific Societies, See Publications, Cryptogamic Society, and East of Scot- land Union.

in Scotland, Relation of British Association to Work of 252

b>) 39

sf H! Aberdeen Working Men’s Nat. Hist. Society... 377

, 5 Dumfrieshire and Galloway Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Soc. 393

5 nA Paisley Practical Botany Class + Ss 375

o3 a Rutherglen Naturalists’ Society ee 376 Scotch Discomycetes, Descriptions of New ate ae J Agee es - Revision of ... st i125, 171, e2oeee Mosses of the Genus Grimmia, On some Ae sa 217

Plants, On Disappearance of asa re is 233

Index. 1X

Page Scotland, Relation of British Association to Work of Local Scientific Societies in A 252 Scotland, Reported Bediienee of Gleneana PHeumononthia: UI) snc 95 & Report on Fungi of the East of, for 1889 i ois 275 ss Revision of the Uredinee of Riis bat $6463025 367 ay Ustilagineze of ... wa fs 367 Scottish Cryptogamic Society r ve ee i Papers read before, NO2>, 4052, 57,125, 171, 220, 302, 307 a3 Galls ee Le 226 A Vascular Plants, Additional recone for 1838 el 1889... 99, 263 Shetland, On the Flora of te eS * no 32, 212, 300 Shingles, Flora of River a aa +a see 290 Societies, See Scientific Societies. Teaching of Science in Public Schools 4. Me ee 3 Transactions, See Publications. Trichoptera, Notices of ... nee nds Fie LOI Zoos BOB OIL Union of Naturalists’ Societies, See East of Scotland Union. Uredinez of Scotland, Revision of _ ... ee a say 4O2y 307 Ustilagines a i ane ae 2 Me 367 Variety of Cardamine amara L. (var. lilacina) ... 299

Vertebrate Fauna of the Outer Hebrides, (Brown and Pactetey} Review of 284°

Willows, Collecting and Study of |... ; ad = 122 ie of the District of the E. S. U. N. S. Le 359 Work of Local Scientific Societies in Scotland, British lees icons in Relation to Work of bite ald sis ms 252 Zoologist, Notice of Articles relating to Scotland in ‘ss oe 379 ——:0:——

INDEX TO DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES IN THIS VOLUME.

(The names of New Species and Varieties are printed in Ionic Letters).

: Fish.

Lichia Vadigo Risso te a bf i ce 262 Moth.

Retinia Margarotana H.S. . . oe o. Re, em 288 Galls.

On Centaurea Scabiosa L., made by Phytoptus ... a. 7 296

», Lathyrus macrorrhizus Wimm. ,, Aulax sag sk 228

», Ononis spinosa L., ‘is Phytoptus es 227

x L[ndex.

Page

On Ribes nigrum L. made by Phytoptus ... 228

»» Salix triandra L, 5 Cecidomyia heterobia Hl. Lw. 230

3 Species varize { », Nematus Salicis- cineree, Ca 230 A gallicola, W. & 8.

», Saxifraga aizoides L. x Phytoptus oS 228 », Vicia hirsuta Koch. a Apion (? Gpilenbaglen 227 Phanerogams.

Agrostis canina L., var. Scotica Hackel in Litt. ce Ss 239 Glyceria distans Wahl., var. prostrata Beeby es a 38 Poa palustris L. ee Bi ie 191 Polygonum viviparum L., var. alpina Wahl. ah : 207 Mosses.

Grimmia Horni Stirton es ae e ane 218

> platyphylla Stirton... a Je 5 219

Characee. Nitella batrachosperma Al. Braun ae Oe ne IQI Fungi.

Ascochyta decipiens Trail x ae ae dg 71 x8 Potentillarum Sacc. = Ss aS ie 72 Cercospora Ji Trail = Be: ba eae 75 Sy microsora Sacc. f a oe ne 75 Coniothyrium Fuckelii Sacc. = “4 ee: ee 225 S Scirpi Trail BL Me - Lk 71

? Cytospora Dubyi Sacc. = A ae ae 71 Exoascus Sadebeckii (Johans. ba oo Me ap 69 Graphiopsis Trail ce Zz ae - 75 . chlorocephala (Fres.) Trail re “Ae 75 Hendersonia leptospora Trail z ee 72 aA sarmentorum West, forma Berbardia Trail 226 Isariopsis Stellarix Trail Bi: Pe het ae 76 Lachnella callimorpha (Karst.) me a = i 222 es grisella (Rehm.) ... . one ae oe 222 Leptothyrium Rubi (Duby) Sacc. g ee i ‘? 226 Marsonia Rose Trail ae i ce a Eds 73 Ombrophila helotioides Phill. (type) ... : te ow 223 Oospora Epilobii (Corda), Sacc. and Vogl. es = % 73 Ophiobolus immersus Trail Me, 5; Re te 70 Patellaria Crategi Phill. (type) 7. es a an 223 Peronospora alta Fuckel oa = os a EX 31 rr Radii De Bary ... mir Sx i. Ber 32

ie Valerians Trail Ae a . ms 69

Viole De Bary ... a ee he Be 31

Index.

Peziza (Dasyscypha) ancilis Pers. a FP umbrina Boud. Phoma? incommoda Trail de Landeghemiz (Nits.) Sacc. ... aa Miilleri Cooke » stagonosporoides Trail Phyllosticta Argentinze Desm. aS maculiformis Sacc. 5 Trollii Trail

Ramularia Epilobii (Schn.) ... = Viole. Trail

Schmitzomia Junci (Karst) Septoria Avellane B. & Br. ...

»» graminum Desm. var. Wolinis Teal

» obscura Trail

», Polygonorum Desm. var. ation Trail

Stagonospora dolosa Sacc.

“i subseriata Desm., var. Tolimics Trail

Synchitrium Succisee De By. & Wor. . Venturia exosporioides (Desm.) Sacc. ...

Xl

Page 132 eae

70 224 224

71

70

70

70

74 74

223 72 73 73 73 72 72 68 69

(For numerous new records for Scotland see i Mingua in koenersl Tadex:

Lichens.

(See Lichens of Inveraray, p. 22, for description of a number of the more strik- ing forms, none, however, being new to Scotland),

Algze (Desmids).

Closterium PSseudodiane Roy Cosmarium gradatum Roy > Slewdrumense Roy

201 203 204

INDEX TO AUTHORS’ NAMES.

Argyle The Duke of

Babington, Prof., F.R.S. Barclay, Robert

Beeby, W. H., A.L.S. Bennett, Arthur, F.L.S. Blackstock, W. S. .. Brown, R.

Druce, G. Claridge, F.L.S.

39, 773 99, 192, 263

16

II3 347 32 212, 30

o 49, 241

43, 144, 239

Xl Index.

Page Duke of Argyle a 3: ae af A sip 16 Editor, all unsigned articles. Evans, W. ee. me) an bn ys =* 262 Farquharson, Mrs. ae a ae =i oe 193 Forrester, John Ws sa a me ¥: a Grant, J. F. ae ee oe ie “44 ie 39, 77 Hogg, Alexander ... ae is Ap oe si 157 Howden, James C., M.D. 4. ee aes 42 3 338 Keith, Rev: James, LL.D. ... De ae ee PS 300 Macmillan, Rev. Hugh, D.D., LL.D. oe AP me 22 Marshall, Rev. E.S. oy: ind a a ee 95, 96 Matthews, J. Duncan es ss rat ae e 98 Paul, Rev. David, M.A. - - es ee = 52 Peyritsch, Or. Ji. cnc ee # a ran ae 114 Phillips, Wm., F.L.S. ss ae 7 as an 222 Roy, John, LL.D. ... re iy bre x ... 198, 199 Stevenson, Rev. John, LL.D. bid is «2 ) Spee Stirton, James, M.D., F.L.S. 38 sf sh <a 217

Trail, Prof. James W. H., A.M., M:D., F.L.8. 30,57, 98, 225.00 226, 233, 252, 275, 302, 346, 349, 360, 367, 385

White, F. Buchanan, M.D.; F.L.S. .. 48, 122, 191, 232, 290, 299, 359 Wilson, William, jun. as RG ton ae = 210

- JANUARY, 1889. = 2 a cL

Scottish Matavalist |

ss A rae ee MAGAZINE OF NATURAL. SCIENCE,

Eprrep py Prorsssor JAMES W. H. TRAIL, A.M., M.D., F.L.S.

CONTENTS.

PAGE Bast bf Scotland Union—Report of Meeting at Largo, .. - é ra _ Teaching. of Science in Public Schools. W..S. BLACKSTOCK, . : 3 _ Hematite tron Ore found in the Neighbourhood of Kirkcaldy. JOHN a _ FORRESTER, ~. oe a sgt eek 6 New Work on Moss Flora of Fife and iKinibeas; re tee re : 15 a _ Presidential Address to Scottish Cryptogamic Society. The DUKE OF a= ARGY bE 2d 5: e 16 , ‘The Lichens of Inveraray. Rev. Hoes MACMILLAN, p. Ds LL. D.; . f BAUS. Fe. : a hei 22- The Peronosporez of Orkney. Prof 18 W. A. aan, ; 30 _ Jn the Flora of Shetland. _ By W. H. Bersy, A.L.S., : 32 é -ontributions towards a Flora of Caithness. J. F. GRANT and ARTHUR Pe Punnett, FL.S,-* : a oe a Plants of Peebleshire. G. CLARIDGE Daeew F. tL. 5.0. S43 ; E Meeting of the Northern Institute-at Huntly, ~ . - ss 5 46 Ps _ Review, eae a aon Pa ete : : : 48

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REPORT OF MEETING OF THE EAST OF SCOTLAND UNION OF NATURALISTS’ SOCIETIES AT LARGO,

(ON THURSDAY AND FRIDAY, 2nd. AND 3rd, AuGusT, 1888).

R. JOHN GILMOUR of Montrave, near Largo, as President of the Union for the year, occupied the chair, and ina short address welcomed the delegates and members from the different Societies, most of which were represented at the meeting, to Largo. He remarked that in previous years the Union had met in the larger towns, but that this year they had met in a quiet country village, in a neighbourhood that teemed with natural beauty and with objects of interest to the student of natural science. The local Society was very proud of the historical associations of the im- mediate vicinity. The lands of Largo were, in.1493, granted by James III. to Admiral Sir Andrew Wood in reward for his gallant victory-over an English fleet. Largo was also the birthplace of Alexander Selkirk, the prototype of ‘‘ Robinson Crusoe.”

Among the interesting relics of the neighbourhood were the Standing Stones of Lundin, which formed an admirable subject of speculation. He then stated that the Largo Field Club is endeavouring to form a collection of local objects; and suggested that the specimens obtained during the excursions of the present meeting should be given to the secretary of the Club, for preserva- tion in the Largo Museum.

There was a good attendance of ladies and gentlemen at the public meeting. It was intimated that there was £5 at the credit of the Union. Jt was resolved that Working Men’s Societies should be eligible to join on the same terms as other Societies. The Council agreed to petition the Government against the clause in the Scottish Universities Bill transferring the manage- ment of the Edinburgh Botanic Garden to the authorities of Edinburgh University.

Mr. R. Brown was appointed delegate from the Union to the

approaching meeting of the British Association in Bath. Mr. A

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Sang having resigned the offices of honorary secretary and treasurer, the thanks of the Union were awarded to him for his services so heartily given during ‘the past ‘years ; and it was re- solved to ask Dr. Buchanan White to accept the duties.

Professor Heddle, St. Andrews, thereafter discussed the com- position of Agates, which are the product of silica dissolved in water, and subsequently precipitated from the solution. He described and illustrated the agents and processes to which their formation was due, basing his remarks on his own very extensive observations, continued during a period of forty years in various countries.

The President read a long and exhaustive paper by Mr. W. Chamberlain, Birmingham, on Non-Volant Birds,” in which he treated of their distribution, past and present, and of the pro- bable causes of their wings being functionless, the most probable cause, in his opinion, being loss of power due to disuse from ‘not having occasion, in oceanic islands, to escape dangers by flight.

Mr. Forrester, Kirkcaldy, read a paper upon a Hematite Iron-ore found in the neighbourhood of Kirkcaldy.” Other papers presented were—‘‘ The Teaching of Natural Science in Public Schools,” by Mr. W. S. Blackstock; an *“‘Introduction to the Moss-flora of Fife and Kin- ross,’”’ by Mr. Charles Howie; ** Additional Notes on the Ornithology of the East of Scotland ; by Col. Drummond- Hay; the ‘* Report for 1888 on the Fungi of the East of Scotland,” by Prof. J. W. H. Trail; and ‘* Notes on the Botany of the District around Alford,” by Mr. William Wilson. The three latter papers were published in this magazine last October; and those of Mr. Forrester and Mr. Blackstock will be found elsewhere in our present issue.

At 6 p.m., the members of the Union were entertained to dinner, in the Hospital Hall, by the Largo Field Naturalists’ Society. After a pleasant dinner, the company had a ramble in the grounds of Largo House.

On Friday an ‘excursion was enjoyed by about fifty ladies and gentlemen. ‘Taking carriages at Lundin Links Station, they visited the standing stones of Lundin and Old Lundin Tower, formerly the residence of the proprietor of the estate, but mow used by Mr. Gilmour as a shooting-box. It is situated amidst beautiful surroundings, and commands a wide view of fertile

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country. The mansion-house of Montrave was next visited ; and though the house itself was unoccupied, being under extensive reconstruction, Mr. Gilmour entertained the company sumptuously to luncheon in one of the coach-houses. After luncheon, the party divided, one half devoting itself to botanising, and the other to an excursion to Cults Limeworks, where Prof. Heddle ex- plained the geological features of the district, with special refer- ence to the coal measures and the limestone beds. ‘The in- terior of the quarry was explored, to a distance of about a third of a mile, the party being lighted on their way by a couple of miner’s lamps. A search for fossils in the débris of the quarry yielded only a few shells. The botanists explored the district around Montraye, Kilmux, and Clatto, and found an abundant supply of moorland and water plants, among which were Catabrosa aquatica, Veronica scutellata, Carex paniculata, and Habenaria chlorantha. ‘The whole company re-assembled at Montrave, where they were entertained to tea before returning to Largo, carrying with them very pleasant memories of the day’s excursion.

TEACHING OF NATURAL SCIENCE IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS. By W. S. BLACKSTOCK.

(Read before the E.S.U.N.S. at Largo, on 2nd Aug., 1888.)

MAY be permitted to state that this paper is limited to the

subjects of Botany and Geology, and that I have been

led to bring this important matter under your notice owing

to an attempt which is at present being made by the Kirkcaldy

Natural History Society to create a love for natural objects

among school children, and to secure the systematic teaching of Botany in the Public Schools in the district.

I consider that the time has come when societies such as those in the Union should insist upon the teaching of Natural History subjects in our common schools, that our public teachers should be trained to teach them, and that such subjects should obtain the fostering care of the Education Department, and of all Associations having for their objects the diffusion of a knowledge

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of Natural Science. I have no desire to rhapsodize, and I have no need ; for we are, from the point of view of Educationists, face to face with two sad facts. (1). That owing to the drifting of our population, from economic conditions into large centres, children are deprived of the physical, moral and intellectual advantages that result from direct contact with nature. (2). The drift of our Public School instruction is too much in the direction of merely putting pupils in possession of such educational tools as may fit them for carrying out their own education in after life, and too little in the direction of-securing for every child a sound physique, a healthy brain, and a ready appetite for the moral lessons taught by stream and lake, mountain and sea. There is a tendency to ~ teach children everything except what they should know best of all—their own immediate surroundings. We are the creatures of circumstances, the result of the influences brought to bear upon us; and in our educational systems the tremendous forces of nature occupy at present almost no place whatever. I have no desire to minimise the importance of the teaching of Grammar or Arithmetic, or of imparting a knowledge of the manufactures and cities of our own and of foreignlands. But the educative influence as we know of the teaching of such subjects is small in comparison with the forms and moods and methods of expression of nature herself. :

Children, even in country districts, leave school unable to dis- tinguish between an oak and anelm. They leave it, having little - sympathy with animals, for such sympathy can be based only on intelligence. And yet children love nature. They are born with a love of it. They will learn to stuff birds, make collections of the stones in the district, and, as I know well, will classify, press, and mount every plant in their neighbourhood.

My time is limited and I am anxious to restrain any strong expression of feeling, but I venture to express the conviction that our combined societies have a duty in this matter. They have, first of all, a duty to themselves. It is a matter of regret that many of our societies are not advancing in numbers. How can we expect them to do so when nothing is done to inoculate the youth of our several districts with a love for Natural Science? I have always held that when any scientific body ceases to be aggressive, its meridian is past. Children have hobbies as well as men. Many of them have scientific hobbies; but these are

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repressed and rooted out, never to flourish again. We have to see to that. | ,

Now in this connection I may ask your attention to what is being done by the Kirkcaldy Society. This year we are offering prizes (the first prize being the sum of £2) to all that can pass an examination in Structural Botany as laid down in the Scotch Code, and that besides produce a collection of plants, gathered, pressed, and mounted by themselves during the present season. But it is not intended to confine our efforts to the subject of Botany. This subject has been taken as the one most likely to interest children. May we not hope that by and bye the Society may enlarge the field to include collections of all natural objects whatever. This scheme will, I am certain, prove successful ; and I hope we may be able to send the winning collection for exhibition at the next meeting of the East of Scotland Union.

I cannot leave this branch of my subject without stating that it was largely owing to the generous kindness of the Hon. President of the Kirkcaldy Society that this scheme was originated. But our societies have a duty collectively. I venture respectfully to suggest that our council might take this important matter in hand. I should be glad to lay before them, with the assistance of such teachers as Mr. Barclay of Perth and Mr. Ellis of Bridge of Earn, a statement of the bearing of the Educational Code upon the teaching of Natural Science. Is it too much to ask that’ the Education Department should secure for every school such a collection as we have in this room (the Largo Museum)? Why should field science be limited in degree, and confined to our Infant Schools? If our council could see it to be a duty to take up this important matter, I believe this would initiate a revolution in our systems of teaching, and do much to secure the physical well-being of our children, which is an all-important matter. You will. also give them that love of nature which will do much to modify the corrosive influence of ordinary work.

Can we secure that school children shall be brought fully under the influence of natural objects? I think this can be done. May it be that our combined societies may so plan and work that our youth shall be brought under the gentle influences of nature, and shall have their powers of observation rendered more acute by a knowledge of natural objects.

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HEMATITE IRON ORE FOUND IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF KIRKOALDY. ,

By JouHN ForRRESTER, President of the Kirkcaldy Naturalists’ Society.

(Read before the E.S.U.N.S. at Largo, on 2d Aug., 1888.)

EFORE describing the subject of this paper, it may be well to take a survey of the family to which this interesting specimen of Hematite belongs.

Historically, Iron has long been known; and very early notice is taken of it. We read in the book of Genesis that ‘‘ Tubal Cain was an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron.” A Phoenician writer (Sanchoniathon) ascribes the discovery of iron, and the forging of it, to two brothers belonging to the same generation as Tubal Cain of the Mosaic record.

In Deuteronomy, Palestine is described as “a land whose stones are iron” (chap. 8, ver. 9), while in the book of Job, we read (ch. 28, ver. 2) “Iron is taken out of the earth and brass is molten out of the stone.” The question whether copper or iron was first em- ployed in the service of man has been the subject of much discussion. Copper or Bronze (the Brass mentioned in the Scriptures) has generally been conceded the first place. Arguments much insisted on for this, are that copper did not require to undergo the various processes needful for iron, to render it fit for use. And, further, that methods of hardening copper, by alloy; had been early arrived at, to make this very soft metal an im- portant implement and weapon in the hands of man.

Lucretius, writing in the century preceding the Christian era, places copper before iron, and says :

‘* Man’s earliest arms were fingers, teeth, and nails, And stones, and fragments from the branching woods, Then copper next ; and last, as later traced,

The tyrant Iron.”

Max Miiller has a very ingenious argument for the early and general use of copper, as opposed to iron. Founding his claim on the ground that the Latin aes, aeris, Gothic avs, old high German ér (from which our English word iron has descended), applied exclusively to copper, he contends that Greek was spoken before jron was discovered, and claims that iron was not known before

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the separation or dispersion of the Aryan nations, because its names vary in the languages that superseded the general use of the Aryan tongue.

I shall not attempt to decide a question attended by so much difficulty ; but, as it bears, in a degree, on the subject of the early use of implements by our race, I wish to bring before you some historical facts, which appear to me of sufficient weight to make us hesitate before making or accepting dogmatic statements as to the different periods in which the metals have been employed as implements.

For example, implements have been formulated as belonging to three successive periods :—

I.—The Stone Age; denoting the ee ane of stone imple-

ments, in a rude and very remote period.

I1.—The Bronze Age ; marking an epoch in the history of man, distinguished by a development of greater resources, in which the use of Stone gave place to that of Bronze.

III.—The Age of Iron ; an era in which this most useful of the metals is employed in the manufacture of the common implements of husbandry and war, in the tools of the workers of stone, wood, and iron itself, in the construction, in whole, or in part, of houses, conveyances, ships, &c., indeed, occupying the foremost place of all the metals in their uses to man.

Modern researches have done a great deal to rob this classification of Archzologists of much of its claims to scientific or historical acceptance, by proving that the use of Stone, Bronze, and Iron has sometimes been contemporaneous. Weapons of each kind have been found in the same ancient graves and dwellings. And in confirmation of this, it is pointed out that the Huns fought with iron swords, while their arrows had points of bone, It is remarked that, while the implements found in Herculaneum and Pompeii have been almost invariably of bronze, Pliny gives a long descrip- tion, in his Natural History, of the manufacture of iron, its general abundance in every country and its application to the general uses obtaining in the present day.

In. the Norman Conquest, 1066 a.p., the Anglo-Saxons fought with stone mauls, at the battle of Sinlac or Hastings. And so late